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Comparison of the accuracy of implant position among freehand implant placement, static and dynamic computer-assisted implant surgery in fully edentulous patients: a non-randomized prospective study

      Abstract

      The optimal implant position is a critical factor for long-term success in fully edentulous patients. Implants can be placed through conventional freehand, static computer-assisted implant surgery (CAIS), or dynamic CAIS protocols, but at present there is very limited clinical evidence on their accuracy in fully edentulous patients. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of implant placement using three protocols in fully edentulous patients. Thirteen patients received 60 implants with the freehand (n = 20), static CAIS (n = 20), or dynamic CAIS (n = 20) protocol. Postoperative cone beam computed tomography was utilized to evaluate the accuracy of implant placement in relation to the planned optimal position. The data were analysed by ANCOVA followed by Bonferroni analysis. The mean angular deviation (standard deviation) in the freehand, static CAIS, and dynamic CAIS groups was 10.09° (4.64°), 4.98° (2.16°), and 5.75° (2.09°), respectively. The mean three-dimensional deviation (standard deviation) at the implant platform in the freehand, static CAIS, and dynamic CAIS groups was 3.48 (2.00) mm, 1.40 (0.72) mm, and 1.73 (0.43) mm, while at the implant apex it was 3.60 (2.11) mm, 1.66 (0.61) mm, and 1.86 (0.82) mm, respectively. No difference in terms of accuracy was found between static and dynamic CAIS; both demonstrated significantly higher accuracy when compared to the freehand protocol in fully edentulous patients.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      CAIS (computer-assisted implant surgery), CBCT (cone beam computed tomography), DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine), ANCOVA (analysis of covariance)
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