Cone beam computed tomography-based cephalometric norms for Brazilian adults

  • R.M.G. Santos
    Department of Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
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  • J.M. De Martino
    Address: José Mario De Martino, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação, Av. Albert Einstein, 400, Cidade Universitária “Zeferino Vaz”, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13083-852, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Tel.: +55 19 3521 3794, Fax: +55 19 3521 3845.
    Department of Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
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  • F. Haiter Neto
    Department of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
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  • L.A. Passeri
    Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
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Published:August 10, 2017DOI:


      This study established cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based cephalometric norms for Brazilian adults, including the assessment of sexual dimorphism. An observer performed McNamara’s cephalometric analysis twice on 60 CBCT datasets acquired from patients with a normal dental occlusion, divided equally into two groups by sex. Welch’s t-test was applied to assess differences between the sexes in hard tissue cephalometric measurements, and Dahlberg’s formula was used to calculate measurement error introduced by the observer. The cephalometric measurements of effective mandibular length, effective midfacial length, maxillomandibular differential, and lower anterior facial height presented sexual dimorphism. Linear measurements had error ≤0.78 mm, and angular measurements had error ≤1.24°. The results show that (1) the CBCT-based cephalometric norms established in this study are reliable for use by researchers and clinicians, and (2) Brazilian adult males and females have similar craniofacial morphology, with males possessing larger jaws than females.

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