Allogenic transplantation of stem cell from oral cavity for bone regeneration

  • P. Arpornmaeklong
    The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand

    Faculty of Dentistry, Thammasert University, Prathumthani, Thailand
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      Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and characterized from various dental organs and oral tissues including dental pulp stem cells, periodontal ligament stem cells and gingival tissue. The high regeneration, low immunogenicity and immunomodulating properties of dental-derived MSCs establish their advantages on allogeneic cell transplantation for cell-based therapy. The transplanted MSCs modulate immune response by secreting soluble growth factors and directly interact with immune cells. Allogeneic MSCs eliminate restrictions of autologous cell transplantation by generating adequate cell populations for transplantation and reducing limitations posed by limited amount of tissue, compromised tissue quality and health issues of autologous donors. Allogeneic MSCs from healthy donors could be used to replenish progenitor cells deficiency in compromised hosts and enable MSC banking for transplantation. Equal bone formation capacity of autologous and allogeneic MSCs has been reported. However, the regenerative and immunosuppressive abilities of dental-derived MSCs are still inconsistent. In comparison to bone marrow-derived MSCs, the effects of immune cells on dental-derived MSCs require further investigations. Furthermore, impact of functional differentiation on immunological profiles of MSCs and safety of allogeneic cells in clinical applications are priorities to be determined. The presentation will assess the potential application and define safety of MSCs from oral cavity in bone regeneration.
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